Telemedicine Appointments are Sufficient to Establish a Serious Health Condition for FMLA Leave

On December 29, 2020, the U.S. Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division (WHD) issued Field Assistance Bulletin 2020-8 regarding the use of telemedicine in establishing a “serious health condition” under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).

Picture1The FMLA provides eligible employees of covered employers with unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons. Eligible employees may take up to 12 workweeks of leave in a 12-month period for, among other things, a serious health condition that makes the employee unable to perform the essential functions of his or her job, or to care for the employee’s spouse, son, daughter, or parent with a serious health condition. See 29 U.S.C. § 2612(a)(1)(C)-(D); 29 CFR § 825.112(a)(3)-(4).

Under the FMLA, a “serious health condition” is an “illness, injury, impairment, or physical or mental condition that involves” either: (1) “inpatient care,” such as an overnight stay in a hospital, hospice, or residential medical care facility, including any period of incapacity or any subsequent treatment in connection with such inpatient care; or (2) “continuing treatment by a health care provider.” The FMLA regulations define the term “treatment” to include “examinations to determine if a serious health condition exists and evaluations of the condition.” The regulations also provide that “[t]reatment by a health care provider means an in-person visit to a health care provider.”  The “in-person visit” requirement Continue reading

California’s CFRA Expansion Brings Increased Leave Rights

With the new year came a significant expansion of the California Family Rights Act (“CFRA”), which provides up to 12 weeks of unpaid, protected family and medical leave for certain employees. 

Under CFRA, specified employers are prohibited from refusing to grant certain leave requests by employees.  Employees granted a CFRA leave request must be guaranteed employment in the same or a comparable position upon termination of the leave.  CFRA also generally requires employers to maintain and pay for coverage under the employee’s group health plan for the duration of the leave at the level coverage would have been provided if the employee had continued working during the leave.

Under Senate Bill 1383, which went into effect January 1, 2021, private employers covered by CFRA now include any person who directly employs 5 or more employees.  Prior to this expansion, private employers covered by CFRA were only those with 50 or more employees. 

Qualifying Reasons For Leave

Qualified employees may be eligible for up to 12 workweeks of unpaid protected leave during any 12-month period:

1. for the birth of a child of the employee or placement of a child with an employee in connection with the adoption or foster care of the child by the employee;

2. for the employee’s own serious health condition that makes the employee unable to perform the functions of the position of that employee;

3. to care for certain family members who have a serious health condition;

4. due to a qualifying exigency related to the covered active duty or call to covered active duty of an employee’s spouse, domestic partner, child, or parent in the Armed Forces of the United States.

Covered family members used to include a spouse, domestic partner, parent, minor child, or dependent adult.  Now covered family members also include a child (not just minor child), grandparent, grandchild, and sibling.  Child, as defined, includes a biological, adopted, or foster child, a stepchild, a legal ward, a child of a domestic partner, or person to whom the employee stands in loco parentis.  This definition now includes adult children.  Parent, as defined, includes a biological, foster, or adoptive parent, a stepparent, a legal guardian, or other person who stood in loco parentis to the employee when the employee was a child.  A grandchild means a child of the employee’s child and a grandparent means a parent of the employee’s parent.  Sibling includes a person related to another person by blood, adoption, or affinity through a common legal or biological parent.

Given these expanded categories covered by CFRA, such leave may not always run concurrently with the Federal Family and Medical Leave Act (“FMLA”).  Employers will want to carefully track all leave requests to properly comply with both the CFRA and FMLA.

You may also recall that California recently expanded its baby-bonding leave to smaller employers.  Specifically, California’s 2018 New Parent Leave Act (“NPLA”), provided for 12 workweeks of unpaid protected baby-bonding leave for employees working at a worksite in which the employer employs at least 20 employees within 75 miles.  The protections of the NPLA are now included within CFRA, and the separate NPLA has been repealed.

Eligibility for Leave

CFRA still requires an employee to have at least 1,250 hours of service with the employer during the previous 12-month period in order to qualify for leave.

Significantly, employees no longer need to be among 50 employees within 75 miles to qualify for leave; there is now no geographic limitation to eligibility for CFRA leave, so long as the employer has 5 or more employees.

The CFRA expansion also eliminated the so-called “key employee” exception.  Specifically, there is no longer an exception from complying with CFRA for an employee who is a salaried employee and is among the highest paid 10% of the employer’s employees. 

Finally, there is no longer an ability to split the total leave among two parents when both parents of a child are employed by the same employer.  Now, the total amount of leave would need to be granted to each such parent.  Employers can no longer require parents split the leave in any way.

A Note About Pregnancy Leave

Although the CFRA expansion touches on leave for baby-bonding, the legislation specifies that existing pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical condition leave provisions are separate and distinct protections from CFRA protections.  By definition, use of CFRA leave to care for an employee’s own serious health condition does not include any leave taken for disability on account of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.

Small Employer Family Leave Mediation Pilot Program

Under Government Code Section 12945.21, the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing (“DFEH”), the state agency that enforces CFRA, is tasked with creating a small employer family leave mediation pilot program for employers with between 5 and 19 employees.  Under the pilot program, an employer may, within 30 days of receipt of a right-to-sue notice alleging a violation of CFRA, request all parties to participate in the DFEH’s dispute resolution division.  The DFEH is supposed to include in a right-to-sue notice information about the right to participate in the mediation pilot program.  If an employer or employee requests such mediation, the employee cannot file suit under CFRA until the mediation is complete.  An employee’s statute of limitations, including for all related claims not under CFRA, are tolled upon receipt of a request to participate in the DFEH’s dispute resolution division until mediation is complete.  Section 12945.21 remains in effect until January 1, 2024.

Next Steps for Employers

Now is a good time to revisit your handbooks, leave policies and training to make sure your company’s policies and procedures comply with the expanded CFRA requirements.  The DFEH has added updated facts sheets, required posters, and other leave-related information on its website.  We will also keep an eye on the CFRA regulations in effect.  Employers with questions about how to comply with the new requirements or how to navigate tricky leave questions are encouraged to consult with employment counsel.

*****

 
Conn Maciel Carey LLP
Disclaimer
Attorney Advertising

Announcing Conn Maciel Carey’s 2021 Labor and Employment Webinar Series

2021 Labor and Employment Webinar Series

The legal landscape facing employers seems as difficult to navigate as it has ever been.  Keeping track of the ever-changing patchwork of federal, state and local laws governing the workplace may often seem like a full-time job whether you are a human resources professional, in-house attorney or  business owner.  Change appears to be the one constant.  As President Trump’s Administration comes to an end, employers will continue to closely track the changes taking place at the NLRB, the DOL and the EEOC.  At the same time, a number of states will continue introducing new laws and regulations governing workplaces across the country, making it more important than ever for employers to pay attention to the bills pending in the legislatures of the states where they operate.  This complimentary webinar series will focus on a host of the most challenging and timely issues facing employers, examining past trends and looking ahead at the issues most likely to arise.

Conn Maciel Carey’s complimentary 2021 Labor and Employment Webinar Series, which includes (at least) monthly programs put on by attorneys in the firm’s national Labor and Employment Practice, is designed to give employers insight into legal labor and employment developments.

​To register for an individual webinar in the series, click on the link in the program description below. To register for the entire 2021 series, click here to send us an email request, and we will register you. If you missed any of our past programs from our annual Labor and Employment Webinar Series, click here to subscribe to our YouTube channel to access those webinars.


2021 Labor & Employment Webinar Series – Program Schedule

California Employment Law Update for 2021

Wednesday, January 20th

Marijuana, Drug Testing and Background Checks

Tuesday, July 13th

COVID-19 Vaccine: What Employers Need to Know

Thursday, February 11th

Employee Misconduct Defense & Employment Law

Wednesday, August 11th

Employment Law Update in D.C, MD, VA and Illinois

Wednesday, March 24th

Employee Handbooks, Training and Internal Audits

Tuesday, September 21st

Withdrawal Liability Pensions

Wednesday, April 14th

NLRB Update

Tuesday, October 19th

ADA Website Compliance Issues –  Best Strategies for Employers

Tuesday, May 18th

Avoiding Common Pitfalls: Non-Compete, Trade Secrets and More!

Wednesday, November 10th

What to Expect from DOL Under the Biden Admin.

Wednesday, June 16th

Recap of Year One of the Biden Administration

Tuesday, December 14th

   

See below for the full schedule with program descriptions, dates, times and links to register for each webinar event.

Continue reading

New COVID-Related State Leave Laws Fill The Void Left By Federal Paid Leave Laws

As the U.S. is entering the third wave of COVID-19 as virus cases continue to rise nationwide, employers should not only be aware of their obligations under the federal Families First Coronavirus Response Act, but also recent state laws such as California’s COVID-19 Supplemental Paid Sick Leave and New York State’s COVID-19 Leave Law.

As we have discussed in a prior blog post, the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) requires private employers with 500 or fewer employees to provide paid sick leave generally when an employee is unable to work because the employee is experiencing COVID-19 symptoms or has a bona fide need to care for a child whose school or child care provider is closed or unavailable for reasons related to COVID-19. 

Continue reading

D.C. Paid Family Leave Law Takes Effect

Effective today, July 1, 2020, eligible employees in the District of Columbia (“DC”) will be entitled to paid leave up to a designated period depending on the qualifying leave event.DC Flag for Blog  Here, we review and highlight important aspects of DC’s Paid Family Leave law.  For additional discussion on the DC Paid Family Leave law and frequently asked questions, please also see our prior post.

Covered Events and Applicable Leave Periods

The DC Paid Family Leave law provides leave benefits to eligible employees for three types of leave: (1) parental leave; (2) family leave; and (3) medical leave. Continue reading

D.C. Expands Sick Leave With COVID-19 Response Supplement Emergency Amendment Act

By Conn Maciel Carey’s COVID-19 Task Force

On April 10, 2020, the District of Columbia passed the COVID-19 Response Supplemental Emergency Amendment Act of 2020 (“the Act”).  Among other things, the Act amends the D.C. Accrued Sick and Safe Leave Act of 2008 by creating a new category of paid leave called “Declared Emergency Leave.” shutterstock_Washington DCThis is in addition to the March 17, 2020, amendment of the D.C. Family and Medical Leave Act (“D.C. FMLA”) that created “Declaration of Emergency” leave.  Under the Act, employers must now provide paid leave to employees for any covered reason provided by the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (“FFCRA”).  Notably, this leave appears to be in addition to: (1) leave provided by FFCRA; (2) leave provided by D.C. FMLA; and (3) leave provided by the employer’s policies.  The new law is currently in effect and will remain in effect for no longer than 90 days, until July 9, 2020.

With respect to coverage, companies employing between 50 and 499 people must provide Declared Emergency Leave to D.C. employees.  It is unclear, however, if the 50 to 499 employees must all work in D.C. to trigger the new law’s application, or whether the new law applies to any employee who works in D.C. so long as the employer employs between 50 and 499 employees nationwide.  Subsequent regulations may be issued to further clarify.  Additionally, there is an exemption from coverage for healthcare providers.  For purposes of Declared Emergency Leave, healthcare provider is defined as any doctor’s office, hospital, healthcare center, clinic, post-secondary educational institution offering healthcare instruction, medical school, local health department or agency, nursing facility, retirement facility, nursing home, home healthcare provider, any facility that performs laboratory or medical testing, pharmacy, or any similar institution, employer or entity.  This includes any permanent or temporary institution, facility, location or site where medical services are provided that are similar to such institutions.

An employee is eligible to take Declared Emergency Leave if Continue reading

[BONUS WEBINAR] HR and Workplace Safety Implications of COVID-19 for Brewers, Distillers, and Winemakers

On Monday, March 30, 2020 at 1 PM Eastern, join Eric J. Conn, Kara M. Maciel, and Daniel C. Deacon of the law firm Conn Maciel Carey for a complimentary webinar: “HR and Workplace Safety Implications of COVID-19 for Brewers, Distillers, and Winemakers.”

There have been a number of significant developments related to the 2019 Novel Coronavirus – now officially called “COVID-19.” The World Health Organization declared a global pandemic, President Trump initiated a National Emergency Order, and state and local officials have been ordering shutdowns of non-essential businesses and mandatory shelter-in-place orders. Furthermore, Congress passed emergency legislation that temporarily requires employers to provide paid sick and family leave and the Department of Labor has issued guidance on how employers should comply with employment and workplace safety laws.

Local craft breweries, distilleries, and wineries have been deemed essential businesses under current federal and state directives, such as the Virginia and Maryland governors March 23, 2020 orders, but the traditional way of doing business has changed considerably. These changes have raised numerous questions regarding how small businesses can successfully operate while complying with these new requirements.

During this webinar, participants will learn about recent developments, new federal legislation, EEOC, CDC and OSHA guidance, including:

  • Federally required Paid Family Leave and Paid Sick Leave;
  • Strategies for employers to prevent workplace exposures while complying with Federal and State labor and employment laws;
  • OSHA’s guidance about preventing workers from exposure to COVID-19 and related regulatory risks;
  • FAQs for employers about managing the Coronavirus crisis in the workplace;
  • Federal and state orders concerning essential businesses and financial assistance; and
  • Tips to maintain a thriving brewery, distillery, or winery while shifting business models.

​Click here to register for this webinar.

For additional employer resources on issues related to COVID-19, please visit the Employer Defense Report and OSHA Defense Report.  Conn Maciel Carey’s COVID-19 Task Force is monitoring federal, state, and local developments closely and is continuously updating these blogs with the latest news and resources for employers.

New COVID-19 Federal Paid Leave Requirements Signed into Law

On March 18, 2020, President Trump signed into law the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (the “Act”) to provide some relief to employees as a result of the Coronavirus (“COVID-19”).  This law will go into effect on April 1, 2020 and will expire on December 31, 2020.

Paid family leaveThe Act includes many provisions which apply to employers, such as paid sick leave for employees impacted by COVID-19 and those serving as caregivers for individuals with COVID-19.  Indeed, there are two provisions providing leave to employees forced to miss work because of the COVID-19 outbreak: an emergency expansion of the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and a new federal paid sick leave law. The Act is the first federal law requiring private employers to provide paid sick leave to employees.  Importantly, not all private employers are covered, as the Act applies only to private employers with fewer than 500 employees.  A summary of the most relevant provisions of the emergency expansion of the FMLA and the paid sick law are as follows:

Continue reading

Employers Face a Myriad of Wage & Hour Issues with COVID-19

There are significant developments happening every day (and virtually every hour) relating to the Coronavirus (COVID-19).  While we cannot predict all the effects of this virus, we can say that first and foremost, employers across all industries need to focus on the safety of their employees, customers, and guests.  Thus, whether your employees are working at your company’s office or from home, employers must monitor guidance from federal, state, and local public health experts and implement recommendations or orders designed to maintain a safe work environment.  To that end, please see our blog post from last week providing advice and FAQ’s regarding how employers can respond to COVID-19. COVID-19

In addition to so many other issues, COVID-19 poses unique wage and hour and human resource challenges. Indeed, Since our last post, we have received dozens of wage and hour related questions from clients resulting from this virus. Although no employer could have full been prepared for the scope of this pandemic, it is important to be aware of both federal and state laws that apply to situations such as this. The best protection is to have a policies and procedures in place in advance (or if that ship has already sailed, to quickly create some policies and procedures) to ensure your employees are paid and well taken care of during this unprecedented time. Our guidance can be used by employers in navigating through the legal and business implications created by this pandemic.  In addition, the information may be applicable to other future crises or disasters.

Therefore, please filed below answers to the most frequently asked questions we have received:

Continue reading

March Update on How Employers Can Respond to COVID-19 with FAQs

By:  Kara M. Maciel and Beeta B. Lashkari

COVID

 

 

 

Since publishing our previous post last month, there have been a number of significant developments related to the 2019 Novel Coronavirus – now officially called “COVID-19.”  Notably, during the week of February 23, 2020, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”) reported community spread of the virus that causes COVID-19 in California, Oregon, and Washington.  Community spread in Washington resulted in the first death in the U.S. from COVID-19, as well as the first reported case of COVID-19 in a health care worker, and the first potential outbreak in a long-term care facility.

Recent Developments and Federal Guidance

  • CDC has published an Interim Guidance for Businesses and Employers, cautioning employers to use the guidance to determine the risk of the Coronavirus, and not to use race or country of origin to make a determination. The guidance covers recommended strategies for employers to use, including: (1) actively encouraging sick employees to stay home; (2) separating sick employees; (3) emphasizing staying home when sick, respiratory etiquette and hand hygiene by all employees; (4) performing routine environmental cleaning; and (5) advising employees before traveling to consult CDC’s Traveler’s Health Notices and other CDC guidance.  Additionally, the guidance states that if an employee is confirmed to have COVID-19, employers should inform fellow employees of their possible exposure to COVID-19 in the workplace, but maintain confidentiality as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”).

Continue reading